What is Glaucoma?

Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases that can cause damage to the optic nerve, which is responsible for transmitting visual information from the eye to the brain. This damage is often caused by an increase in intraocular pressure (pressure within the eye), which can be due to a buildup of fluid in the eye.

There are several types of glaucoma, including open-angle glaucoma, which is the most common form, and angle-closure glaucoma, which is less common but can be more severe. Some people may also have a form of glaucoma called normal-tension glaucoma, in which the optic nerve is damaged even though the intraocular pressure is within the normal range.

Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness worldwide, but early detection and treatment can often prevent or slow down vision loss. Regular eye exams are important, especially for people who are at higher risk for glaucoma, such as those with a family history of the disease or who are over the age of 60.

How does it develop?

Glaucoma typically develops when there is an imbalance in the production and drainage of fluid within the eye, leading to increased intraocular pressure (IOP). Elevated IOP can cause damage to the optic nerve, which can lead to vision loss.
In open-angle glaucoma, which is the most common form of the disease, the drainage angle of the eye gradually becomes less effective at draining fluid, leading to a buildup of pressure within the eye. This pressure can eventually damage the optic nerve and cause vision loss.

In angle-closure glaucoma, the drainage angle of the eye is blocked or narrowed, leading to a sudden increase in intraocular pressure. This is often accompanied by symptoms such as eye pain, headache, and nausea, and can cause rapid vision loss if not treated promptly.
Other factors that can increase the risk of developing glaucoma include age (the risk increases as you get older), a family history of the disease, certain medical conditions such as diabetes and hypertension, and certain medications such as corticosteroids.

Frequently Asked

  • Open-angle (chronic) glaucoma
  • Angle-closure (acute) glaucoma
  • Congenital glaucoma
  • Secondary glaucoma
  • Severe eye pain
  • Headaches
  • Nausea, vomiting
  • Mid-dilated pupil
  • Eye red and irritated
  • Blurred vision
  • Halos around lights

Anyone can suffer from glaucoma. But some people are at more risk than others and risk factors are:

  • Increasing age.
  • Nearsightedness.
  • Family history of glaucoma children & siblings of known glaucoma patients should get their eyes checked regularly.
  • Previous eye injuries or surgeries.
  • Other diseases such as diabetes or high blood pressure.
  • Thin Corneas are a risk factor for Glaucoma.